Dry Skin Brushing

A Healthy Morning Wake Up

Dry brushing is just what it sounds like – brushing over [most of] the exposed skin surfaces with a dry brush. It is usually done in a certain pattern and just before taking a shower.

Why would one do this?

It has a number of potential benefits, from smoother skin to improved circulation and even immune function and, not lease of all, it feels good!

Effects and Benefits

• Exfoliation
This most obvious effect and benefit is immediately noticeable. The process of brushing with a firm, natural bristled brush over the skin helps loosen and remove dead skin cells, naturally exfoliating skin. That means less less dry, flakey skin and a softer, smoother surface.

• Cleansing
The added benefit of exfoliating the skin is removing dirt, excess oil and residue from the pores. This reduces the need to use soaps or gel, which tend to remove too much of the skin’s natural protective layer of oil (sebum). Sebum is our own, tailor-made moisturiser, which both lubricates and waterproofs the skin and also forms the immune system’s first line of defence against the entry of harmful organisms.

• Elimination
The skin is the largest organ of the body one of whose functions is elimination, so it follows that if it will function well if it is kept healthy.

• Stimulate circulation
You will probably notice that your skin is a bit pink after brushing and may feel slightly tingly, because the skin capillaries have dilated bringing more blood flow close to the surface. 

• Lymphatic Drainage
Although somewhat debatable, some proponents of dry brushing claim that brushing the skin assists lymph drainage.
The lymphatic system is a major part of the body’s immune system, which collects the fluid that surrounds all the cells into vessels to be filtered and cleansed via lymph nodes, at strategic places in the body and then return it to the blood circulatory system.

• Natural Energy Boost
Similar to the oriental method of Do-in, designed to stimulate qi flow in the meridians, dry brushing has an invigorating effect and wakes you up with a natural energy boost. It can become a little bit addictive (in a good way!)

Selecting a Brush

Natural, sustainable bristle is generally considered the best. I use a firm, cactus bristle brush, with a long, removable handle. The handle allows me to reach my entire back and removing it makes it easier to use the brush on other parts of the body.   

Initially the skin will be quite sensitive and it’s better to start with a softer brush, later you may prefer a stiffer, firmer brush. (IF you choose to brush your face only use only a small, VERY soft brush.) 

Tampico cactus bristle – the firmest type of bristle available is best used dry. Tampico is a type of Cactus which is preferred by experienced body brushers for dry body brushing treatments as it is the most effective. It has firm, low flex, thicker fibres.

Sisal / Agave bristle – slightly less firm than the tampico. 

Hogs hair – a medium strength bristle, which is good for all skin types and it can be used wet or dry. This is a good bristle to start dry body brushing with the aim of progressing to the cactus.

Boar bristle – a strong, good quality bristle, often used in hair brushes. Ethically sourced as the animals are not killed.

Horse hair – slightly softer than hog’s hair and again can be used wet or dry. Perfect for gently exfoliating the face..

Goats hair – the softest of the bristles and is for use on very sensitive skin or in facial treatments.

How to Dry Brush 

Dry brushing can be done daily over the whole body, preferably in the morning before showering. Start with a gentle brush and soft pressure. Gradually work up to a stiffer brush and more firm pressure.

The order and direction

The most common recommendation is to brush inwards towards the heart, in the direction of the lymph drainage channels, as in Swedish massage. 

Another method is to follow the direction of the energy (qi) flow in the meridians – down the back of the body and up the front, which is similar to the oriental do-in practice of tapping along the meridians.

I tend to use a combination of both these methods, brushing up and down while working my way in a particular direction: 

1.  Using the long handle to brush 2-3x up and down the spine from top downwards

2.  Remove the handle and brush across the tops of the shoulders

3.  The back and sides of the torso, working my way generally downwards 

4.  A circular motion 2-3x around the sacrum, then each buttock 

5.  Up and down the outside and outer back of the thighs then lower legs, including 2-3 circles around the knees. 

6.  The soles of the feet and up the inside and inner back of legs to the groin.

Repeat 5-6 on other side 

7.  Circle the abdomen in a clockwise direction spiralling into the navel then outwards, ending at the pubis. 

8.  Up the front side ribcage, armpits and inner arms to palms. 

9.  The back of the hand, from the fingers to the shoulders and a circular motion around the shoulder joint 

10. Gentle circles around the breast, finishing at the sternum.

Repeat 8-10 on other side

Note: Do not brush too hard! A light, smooth stroke works best and is less likely to do damage. My skin is slightly pink and pleasantly tingly after brushing, but it should never be red or sting. If it hurts at all, apply less pressure, use a softer brush or stop completely.

Replace the brush when the bristles become too soft to be effective or are falling out.

How often?

This depends on what works for you. Some say daily, some once a week. In the beginning it is probably best to leave at least a day or two between brushes to check how your skin is responding and whether there are any adverse effects. I do not use soap on my skin, so I dry brush every day.

Cleaning the brush

Note most brushes are designed for dry use and wetting them will tend to adversely affect the wood and may loosen the bristles and make them fall out. Wetting the brush also softens the bristles, so if you prefer a stiff brush, don’t wash it too often. Putting it out in the sun will help kill any bacteria. You could spray it lightly with hydrogen peroxide, which kills bacteria and evaporates, or use surgical alcohol, then let it dry naturally.


Always explore and pay careful attention to what works best for you and YOUR body and use your common sense. If you have very sensitive skin, open or recent wounds, rashes, or a history of eczema or other skin conditions, this is almost certainly not for you. 

Illness, medication and pregnancy can all alter the sensitivity of the skin and, even if dry brushing was previously fine, it may not feel good at these times. 

Do NOT ignore warning signs like discomfort, pain, rash, itchiness, extreme or persistent redness. Avoid sensitive areas, don’t use uncomfortably stiff bristles, and stop immediately if irritation occurs.

There have been no scientific / clinical studies on dry skin brushing and it is not likely there will ever be funding for any, so the reports of its benefits are anecdotal (some are far-fetched!). It is generally agreed to feel good and the potential for harm is minimal (with the common sense precautions). Experiment for yourself.Tagsdry skin brushing

A Strong Immune System – Our Best Defence

A Strong Immune System – Our Best Defence

Although there are a number of supplements on the market that claim to boost the immune system, there is no real evidence for that they work. If the body is actually deficient in certain vitamins, taking the right dose of those particular ones might help a weakened immune system. However, taking mega doses of anything is at best likely to be a waste of money and at worst could be toxic. 

The best advice is, as we all know, to lead a healthy lifestyle. Eat moderately, a varied diet, avoid smoking, drink small amounts of alcohol only with food and just occasionally and exercise regularly (and moderately!). If we have a good healthy baseline, we can deal with an occasional…err ‘deviation’ (we are only human!) and regain balance again relatively easily. 

Other things well within our control are to develop efficient breathing, quality relaxation, good sleep, doing more of what we love, feeling grateful and being able to laugh and not take life too seriously. After all the very worst that could happen is going to happen to us all eventually anyway!

In Chinese medicine the lungs are considered to be the ‘tender organ’, because they are so susceptible to pathogens. (The Chinese medicine version of pathogens, such as wind-cold and damp-heat would not be recognisable to a western doctor, because they describe the effect of the invader on the body rather than it’s biological classification.) Healthy lungs are an essential component of good immunity when it comes to viruses etc that are likely to enter the body by that route. The lungs do have a clever method of cleaning themselves known as the ‘mucus escalator’. The walls of the respiratory tubes are lined with a membrane that produces a sticky, lubricating mucus and microscopic hair-like projections called cilia. These constantly move in a wafting action, up and out towards the throat, moving the sticky mucus, which has trapped harmful particles and organisms. One of the problems of smoking is that it paralyses the action of the cilia. Smokers often have a morning cough, because they have not smoked during the night and the cilia have been able to get going to start clearing out the accumulated mucus and other debris. Severe pollution can have a similar effect.

Apart from not smoking and avoiding polluted places, we can help support the lungs with breathing exercises. It can be helpful to think of these as medicine, with a right ‘dosage’, so they are effective without becoming harmful. If you over-breathe, you may hyperventilate, change the ph of the blood, get dizzy and could even pass out – definitely not healthy!!

The yoga breathing technique, kapalbhati is one of the kriyas (cleansing practices), partly because it helps stimulate the natural cleaning mechanism of the lungs. Additionally, it is energising, stimulates digestive fire (but only to be done BEFORE eating), tones the abdomen, cleanses the nadis (energy channels / meridians) and shifts our mood. 

If you have an underlying respiratory problem, you may have been sent to a chest clinic and been taught ACBT / huffing breath (as I was after I had contracted hooping cough in my 30’s). Here is a Youtube video. Over the years I have also developed my own yoga version of the exercise. 

The complete yoga breath is another practice that can help thoroughly ventilate the lungs and make sure the whole breathing mechanism is working well.
Inhale to a comfortable count of 4, pacing the breath, so you have some left to reach the collar bone area.
1. Breathing downwards, as if into the pelvis
2. Horizontally widen all around the lower ribs / diaphragm
3. Expand the chest
4. Breathe upward into the space above the collar bones

Either exhale from the top down, finishing with a gentle squeeze of the belly, or just let the exhale fall out through the mouth. 
If you are a beginner, take a normal breath before repeating. Do 3-5 breaths then return to normal breathing. Repeat up to 3 times.

N.B. NEVER force or strain any breathing techniques. That can have the opposite of the desired effect!! 

All these practices should be done moderately, to find what works best for each individual. More is not better. Especially if they are new to you, gradually ease into them, take pauses between rounds, to feel the effects (and develop mindfulness!)  

Gargling with salt water has been suggested in the official advice. Another yoga kriya is nasal washing known as neti. This involves flushing out the nasal passages with warm salt water. With the head forward and turned to the side, water can be poured from a container with a spout, up one nostril so that it flows out through the other (the gentle version), squirted up with a sinus rinse bottle, or simply sniffed up each nostril, while holding the other one closed. A good time to do this is before breathing exercises, after being exposed to pollution and, at the present time, after being around other people.
Examples of nasal washing devices all available on Amazon.

For many years, I noticed that my nasal membranes got so dry in airplanes that my nose would bleed. I took to rubbing a drop of olive oil inside each nostril, whenever I fly (or spend long periods in an air-conditioned atmosphere), which completely cured the problem.
In the last couple of years, because airplanes have long been notorious for spreading infections, I have taken to adding to my little travel bottle of olive oil, a couple of drops of tea tree essential oil (approx 1:10). Tea tree is reputed to have anti-viral properties. I cannot say I have any evidence for this as protection against germs, but it is pleasant and unlikely to do harm. NEVER use essential oils undiluted as they may cause irritation.

DRY SKIN BRUSHING is a method of all over exfoliating to help keep skin healthy and the skin is the immune system’s first line of defence. You can read my post about it here

The other factor we hear a lot about is stress. A certain amount of stress is actually good for us, but too much and over too sustained a period is not.
So in the time-honoured words from the Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy; “DON’T PANIC”!!!
Learn to relaxxxxxxxxx…… This might be easier said than done, especially for those who are so used to being constantly wound up those few extra turns, that they are no longer even aware of it! An indication is if you are someone who finds it a big challenge just to be still and do nothing for 10 minutes and immediately want to reach for your phone. Here is a hypnotherapy recording by Trevor Sylvester to help you relax and strengthen the immune system

Every now and then, practise taking a different perspective. This is called pratipaksha bhavanam. Imagine taking a step back from yourself and seeing what you are doing, thinking and feeling as if from some some distance away. Apply the bigger picture view and ask yourself what is the wisest way to proceed – for your own well-being and happiness and for all others around you.

Learn the art and skill of relaxation. Find what works best for you. Start with short power naps and progress to longer guided relaxation. Eventually you could dive into the deeper aspects of meditative consciousness in yoga nidra. Find a position that is comfortable and works for you. Savasana, the yoga ‘corpse’ pose with some supports works for many people.

Restorative yoga is exactly what it says, using supported yoga postures to deeply relax and to release tension from different areas of the body in various positions in order to restore energy and optimal function.

Establish a routine to help ensure you get good sleep. 
• Aim to go to bed at the same time most nights 
• Eat supper well before bedtime, avoid caffeine and minimise alcohol consumption
• Stop using all electronic media several hours before bed
• If your mind is worried / preoccupied, read or watch something that transports you into another state, but be careful of over stimulating the mind in a different way 

If you are going through periods of insomnia, don’t worry, try to snuggle up and luxuriate in the fact that you don’t have to get up yet. As long as you are resting your body can still replenish itself. If your mind is too restless, listen to a relaxation or yoga nidra recording, which will also help enable your body to restore itself.

What do you love? Think of the places, people you hang out with, pets, activities that you most enjoy, that give you a sense of well-being / peace / joy / calm / okay-ness, or when you can become so wonderfully absorbed in the moment that you forget yourself. Make sure you give time to them regularly. It is good for your health.

What simple things in your life is it easy to feel grateful for? The feeling of gratitude is good for our health.

And finally the joy and healing power of laughter. I believe it is our saving grace. it gives us distance and perspective and stops us from taking ourselves and life too seriously.

Try watching this video, see what happens to you and how it makes you feel.

“Don’t take life too seriously, you’ll never get out of it alive!” ~ Elbert Hubbard

Cleansing Breathing Techniques For Healthy Lungs

In my 30’s I caught whooping cough, while in India, which was not diagnosed until it was over and I was back in the UK. By then it had done some damage to my lungs and, as I was deemed more than usually susceptible to infections, I was sent to a chest clinic. They taught me the Active Cycle of Breathing Technique (ACBT), otherwise known as the ‘Huffing Breath’, which has been extremely useful in helping to keep infections at bay. I might even say I seem to be LESS susceptible than I was before the whooping cough!

Here is a link to some physiotherapy descriptions /demo, which I think explain the technique very well.

Physiotherapy description of ACBT 
Youtube video demonstration

Over the years I have developed my own ‘yoga’ version, which I use pretty regularly and, at the moment, am using every day. I also find kapalbhati (shining skull breath) very useful (see below).

1. Inhale a complete yoga breath to a count of 4 into: 1. pelvis – 2. lower – 3. middle – 4. upper chest. 
Comfortably pace the breath so as not be straining and have enough left to reach the collar bones.
2. Hold for a count of 5 (+/- optional extra: apply yoga locks; lift pelvic floor and close the throat)
3. Press the tongue down and exhale forcefully through the mouth, squeezing out as much breath as possible and imagine misting a mirror about an arm’s length away
4. 1-2 normal breaths
5. Repeat 3-5x = 1 cycle 
6. I repeat the cycle in various positions to reach different parts of the lungs; standing or sitting upright, forward bend in standing or kneeling (lungs inverted), on my back, side lying. 

This practice can make you cough, as it moves secretions up out of the lungs towards the throat, to be swallowed (so the stomach acid can kill any bugs) or spat out.

NEVER force or strain. The whole sequence should be easy and comfortable.

KAPALBHATI – Shining Skull Breath
This is a yoga cleansing technique for the respiratory tract, which also has many other benefits.
Here is a link to a free pdf, with instructions and pictures, on Kapalbhati

My post on strengthening the immune system contains some other techniques for helping to cleanse the respiratory tract and stop infections from taking hold.

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Ease Screen Eye Fatigue

With so much of our lives now happening online, many of us are spending far more time than we are used to staring at a screen and finding it surprisingly exhausting. (See BBC article at the bottom of this post).

This routine of yoga eye exercises both helps to relax the eyes and balance the left and right brain hemispheres (similar to EMDR eye movements). Thus they calm the mind and are helpful for reducing stress and repetitive thoughts and as preparation for meditation.

These eye exercises can be done sitting or lying down and even combined with a mild passive inversion pose, followed by relaxation with an eye cover for 5-15 minutes. This adds an energy replenishing, restorative benefit.

Breathe into the belly and slightly lengthen the exhalations.

Here is a BBC article on why online conferencing such as via Zoom is so tiring.

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